History of Glass
The history of glass, the development of art contemporary glass, reverse glass painting, and free designs you can download for your own reverse paintings on glass. It also includes art book design glass, the various methods of decorating glass, and a glass history short.
Only three things are required in order to make glass. They are, silica, alkali, and heat. The silica can come in the form of sand, quartz or flint. The alkali might come from soda or potash. The alkali acts as a flux/adhesive. In nature, glass is found as obsidian, and is blackish-grey, however, man made glass is nearly transparent.
Glass beads are known to have existed in the history off glass from the 3rd millenium B.C. Hollow containers made of glass, from around 1500 B.C. have also been discovered. Between 1500 B.C. and the 3rd century A.D., though there seems to be a large gap, until it was revived in Syria and Mesopotamia in the 9th century, and slowly spread westward.
The city of Alexandria was founded in 332 B.C., and soon after, glass making arrived there. Alexandria became the most important hub of glass production for some time.
The discovery of glass blowing by human lungs was a giant step in the history of glass industry. Though we don’t know when it was first employed, it was used until the 19th century. Another profound discovery was made in the U.S., in 1825, when man first made pressed glass. The history of glass truly is an extensive one!
The Decoration of Glass
In addition to the coloring of glass, or stained glass, many other methods of decorating it have been developed in the history of glass. Among these are, gilding, cold painting, enameling, sand-blasting and etching.
Enameling is an ancient technique, in use from the 15th century B.C. The colors are fused to the glass, and made permanent by refireing it.
Gilding is another permanent way to decorate glass. Gold was applied to the glass in the form of foil or powder, and an adhesive, possibly honey, and then refired in a kiln, or placed between two layers of glass, and refired. In Germany, during the 18th century, this was found very often in goblets and glass tumblers.
The etching and frosting of glass was not developed until the 19th century, so is a relatively new form of glass decoration, but still very important in the history of glass. Hydrofluoric acid is applied to eat away at the surface of the glass, with a more concentrated acid used for a more dramatic effect. Hydrofluoric acid is an extremely dangerous material, and requires stringent safety precautions when used.
Sand-blasting is used on glass with very similar results to the etching.. The french designer Rene’ Lalique used sand-blasting for the R Lalique trademark and for decorating.
It is thought that stained glass, and the history of it, originated in the Middle East. It is also probable that stained glass is strongly related to glass enameling. By the 12th century A.D., the art of stained glass was widely known.
Gilding is another great break in the history of glass, a permanent way in the glass history short to decorate glass. Gold was applied to the glass in the form of foil or powder, and an adhesive, possibly honey, and then refired in a kiln, or placed between two layers of glass, and refired. In Germany, during the 18th century, this was found very often in goblets and glass tumblers.
Cold painting on glass, the process of applying oil and laquer paints to glass, another segment in the history of glass, does not require refiring. The biggest drawback to this method is that the paint will scratch off the glass over time. However this can be avoided in large by sealing off the back of the painting with wood. With proper care and protection, painted glass will give years of beauty.
History of Enameled Glass
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